What is Adobe RGB, s-RGB or Pro-Photo RGB?

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It is difficult to describe colors in such a way, that each apparatus (digital camera, scanner, LCD screen, printer) reproduces colors correct. Ever had a print with disappointing colors? Then you already experienced that transferring color information between different devices is not as easy and straightforward as you would like it to be.
There are several ways to describe a color (using "color models" and "color spaces"). Well known color models are CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow and black), traditionally used by the press and RGB (red, green, blue) for cameras and LCD screens. Within the RGB model several color spaces exist, of which Adobe RGB, s-RGB and Prophoto RGB are most commonly known. The entire set of colors an apparatus can describe, is called an apparatus color space or gamut.

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What is camera calibration

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Cameras describe colors as a mixture of red, green and blue (RGB). The amount of each color is described by a number. The number combination (0,0,255) equals a dark, saturated blue color and (128,128,128) represents middle gray. Just like with people, each apparatus registers a color just a little bit different than another apparatus. One camera will describe a specific color as (100, 240, 100), whereas another camera will describe exactly the same color as (0, 237, 40).
How is a printer or LCD screen to know which color to show you, if two different cameras produce such different numbers for exactly the same color?

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